When you want to see a doctor
First, search clinics. Clinics are also named "shinryojo" or "iin" in Japanese.
You can take medical examinations or get treatment for your injuries or illness at clinics.
If you need to take more detailed examination, or your illness is too severe to treat at clinics, then the doctor will refer you to a bigger general hospital.
You have to decide which medical department you go in advance because each clinic doctor has his/her specialty.